Privacy as human flourishing: Could a shift towards virtue ethics strengthen privacy protection in the age of Big Data? van der Sloot Bart Privacy is commonly seen as an instrumental value in relation to negative freedom, human dignity and personal autonomy. Article 8 ECHR, protecting the right to privacy, was originally coined as a doctrine protecting the negative freedom of citizens in vertical relations, that is between citizen and state. Over the years, the Court has extended privacy protection to horizontal relations and has gradually accepted that individual autonomy is an equally important value underlying the right to privacy. However, in most of the recent cases regarding Article 8 ECHR, the Court goes beyond the protection of negative freedom and individual autonomy and instead focuses self-expression, personal development and human flourishing. Accepting this virtue ethical notion, in addition to the traditional Kantian focus on individual autonomy and human dignity, as a core value of Article 8 ECHR may prove vital for the protection of privacy in the age of Big Data. Big Data European Convention on Human Rights Negative Freedom Privacy 340 periodical academic journal JIPITEC 5 3 2014 230 244 2190-3387 urn:nbn:de:0009-29-40978 van der sloot2014